Truffles boast an impressive nutrient profile and are high in many important vitamins and minerals.
In fact, they’re high in carbs, protein and fiber and contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, as well as micronutrients, such as vitamin C, phosphorus, sodium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and iron.
Research also indicates that truffles may be a complete source of protein, providing all nine essential amino acids your body needs.
Keep in mind that the nutrient profile can vary between species. For example, studies show that white desert truffles are higher in protein, fat and fiber than other types, such as the black desert species.
Truffles are a great source of antioxidants, compounds that help fight free radicals and prevent oxidative damage to your cells.
Studies show that antioxidants are important to many aspects of your health and may even be linked to a lower risk of chronic conditions, such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes.
Though the exact amounts can vary between different species, truffles have been shown to contain antioxidants like vitamin C, lycopene, gallic acid and homogentisic acid.
Because of their antioxidant content, test-tube studies show that both black and white truffles may even help kill cancer cells and reduce inflammation.
Note that this study was performed using highly concentrated truffle extracts. Therefore, it remains unclear how the antioxidants in fresh truffles may affect your overall health.
In addition to their stellar nutrient profile, truffles may also have antimicrobial properties that can help decrease the growth of specific strains of bacteria.
One test-tube study showed that extract from desert truffles inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by up to 66%. This bacteria can cause a wide range of illnesses in humans.
Similarly, another test-tube study observed that extract from the same variety decreased the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a strain of bacteria that is often highly resistant to antibiotics.
However, further research is needed to measure the antibacterial effects of other types of truffles and in amounts typically eaten.
Additionally, high-quality studies should be conducted to determine how the antibacterial properties of truffles may affect these bacterial infections in humans.
Though evidence is currently limited to test-tube studies, some research suggests that truffles may possess powerful anticancer properties.
For example, one test-tube study showed that compounds extracted from different types of truffles helped block the growth of liver, lung, colon and breast tumor cells.
Another test-tube study found that extracts from both black and white species exhibited anticancer effects on cervical, breast and colon cancer cells.
However, additional studies are needed to evaluate how truffles may impact cancer growth in humans when eaten rather than in concentrated extract form.
Inflammation is a vital part of your immune function that helps defend your body against infection and illness.
However, sustaining high levels of inflammation in the long term is thought to contribute to the development of chronic disease.
Some research suggests that truffles may help relieve inflammation and hence promote overall health and immunity.
One test-tube study showed that certain compounds in black and white species could block the activity of specific enzymes involved in the inflammatory process.
Other test-tube research has found that truffles may help fight free radical formation, which can reduce your risk of cell damage and inflammation.
Still, more research is needed to understand how eating normal amounts of truffles may influence levels of inflammation in humans.